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Other Buddhist Canons

tibetan buddhist scripture

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Pali Canon is the earliest sacred Buddhist Canon that was written in Pali language. Along with the Pali language, there are other Buddhist canons as well which were translated according to need and location. They are mainly Tibetan Buddhist Canon, Chinese Buddhist Canon, and Sanskrit Buddhist Literature. These are in some way the localized form of written scriptures of Buddha's teaching since it will be hard to understand Pali for all. So these kinds of localization are necessary.

Buddhist Canons other than Pali Canon

Tibetan Buddhist Canon

the scriptures

Tibetan Buddhist Canon is the list of sacred texts, Buddha's teachings and commentaries of Buddha's disciples, which is recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. Along with sutras and other Mahayana sources, the Tibetan Canon includes tantric texts as well. This canon was finally compiled in the 14th century by Buton Rinchen Drub. The Tibetan Buddhist Canon can be broadly divided into two categories: Kangyur and Tengyur.

Kangyur:

This canon consists of the works or the teachings of Buddha himself. The texts were translated from Sanskrit, Pali, and also from Chinese and other languages as well. The Kangyur is also divided into sections- Vinaya, Perfection of Wisdom Sutras, Avatamsaka, Ratakuta, and other sutras and tantras. The exact numbers of texts in the Kangyur are not fixed since there are numerous authors. Basically, authors take the responsibility for the removing and adding the texts that he considers important. In the current situation, there are about 12 versions of Kangyur text in Tibet which is named after the location where it was published. These Kangyurs are- Derge, Lhasa, Narthang, Cone, Peking, Urga, Phudrak, and Stog Palace versions. Apart from these versions, some canonical text has been found in Tabo Monastery and Dunhuang. The Kangyur contains around 943 texts in 100-108 volumes

Tengyur:

This canon consists of the works of the Buddha's disciples. This includes mainly commentaries, treatises, and Abhidharma works. The Tengyur contains 3626 texts in 224 volumes. Tengyur Canon can be categories as

Sutras consist of 1 volume of 64 texts.

Commentaries on the Tantras consists of 86 volumes with 3055 texts.

Commentaries on the Sutras consists of 137 volumes with 567 texts.

Commentaries on the Prajnaparamita consists of 16 volumes.

Madhyamika Treatises consists of 29 volumes.

Yogacara Treatises consists of 29 volumes.

Abhidharma consists of 8 volumes.

Miscellaneous texts of 4 volumes.

Vinaya Commentaries of 16 volumes.

Tales and Dramas of 4 volumes.

Technical Treatises of 43 volumes.

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Chinese Buddhist canon

Chinese Buddhist Canon refers to the Buddhist literature deemed canonical in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Buddhism. The Chinese Buddhist Canon includes Agama, Vinaya, and Abhidharma texts as well as the Mahayana Sutras and scriptures from Esoteric Buddhism.

The Chinese Buddhist Canon is developed in many versions in East Asia in different places and time. An early version is the Fangshan Stone Sutras which was developed in the 7th century and most used version is Taisho Shinshu Daizokyo which was named after Taisho era.

Sanskrit Buddhist Literature

Sanskrit Buddhist Literature refers to Buddhist texts which are composed in the classical Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. Sanskrit Buddhist Literature was also translated from Pali Canon. As Johannes Bronkhorst argues that the adoption of Buddhist literature in Sanskrit is mainly due to the association with political prestige and power. In those days, the Buddhist viharas of India were sought after these things. The reputed viharas of India would only fulfill their desires only after if they develop the knowledge of Sanskrit and communicate with the more upper classes and royal courts. The use of Sanskrit still survives in the Newar Buddhism of Nepal and thus the majority of Sanskrit Buddhist manuscripts are still preserved there.

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Our collections of Buddha statues and arts

Old bronze Nepali Buddha statue

Old bronze Nepali Buddha statue

275 euro
Very early Jain statue with inscriptions

Very early Jain statue with inscriptions

600 euro
Bronze Nepali Medicine Buddha statue

Bronze Nepali Medicine Buddha statue

175 euro
Very special bronze Burmese Buddha statue

Very special bronze Burmese Buddha statue

47,500 euro
Old bronze Nepali Ganesha statue

Old bronze Nepali Ganesha statue

350 euro
Old wooden Burmese Mandalay Buddha

Old wooden Burmese Mandalay Buddha

800 euro
Old bronze Nepali Buddha statue

Old bronze Nepali Buddha statue

500 euro
Old bronze Nepali Green Tara

Old bronze Nepali Green Tara

1,350 euro
Special antique marble Jain statue

Special antique marble Jain statue

2,750 euro
Old red Burmese offering vessel

Old red Burmese offering vessel

750 euro
Special antique bronze Shan Buddha statue

Special antique bronze Shan Buddha statue

7,500 euro
Old marble Hanuman statue

Old marble Hanuman statue

650 euro
Old bronze Burmese Buddha statue

Old bronze Burmese Buddha statue

500 euro
Antique wooden Burmese Mandalay Buddha statue

Antique wooden Burmese Mandalay Buddha statue

1,850 euro
Old bronze Manjushri statue

Old bronze Manjushri statue

550 euro
Old bronze nepali Ganesha statue

Old bronze nepali Ganesha statue

250 euro
Old bronze Nepali Lokeshwor statue

Old bronze Nepali Lokeshwor statue

1,750 euro
Old bronze Parvati statue

Old bronze Parvati statue

900 euro
Old bronze Nepali White Tara statue

Old bronze Nepali White Tara statue

325 euro
Antique marble Ganesha statue

Antique marble Ganesha statue

2,850 euro
Old marble Burmese Buddha statue

Old marble Burmese Buddha statue

900 euro
Old Burmese Buddha statue

Old Burmese Buddha statue

1,600 euro
Pair of old marble lion statues

Pair of old marble lion statues

700 euro
Old bronze Nepali Buddha statue

Old bronze Nepali Buddha statue

600 euro
Special antique Ivory Japanese Zushi shrine

Special antique Ivory Japanese Zushi shrine

14,500 euro
Antique bronze Thai Sukhothai Buddha statue

Antique bronze Thai Sukhothai Buddha statue

1,600 euro
Antique ivory Japanese figure

Antique ivory Japanese figure

1,500 euro
Old wooden Burmese Monk statue

Old wooden Burmese Monk statue

300 euro
Old wooden Burmese Throne

Old wooden Burmese Throne

1,250 euro
Old bronze Nepali Buddha statue

Old bronze Nepali Buddha statue

600 euro
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